Research & Creative Activity at Appalachian is an annual event that celebrates all research, scholarship and creative endeavors of Appalachian faculty and staff. The event consists of sessions during which faculty and staff present oral presentations, posters, art pieces and performances. The event includes an awards ceremony for the Chancellor's and Provost's Awards for Excellence in Research, Scholarship and Creative Activity.
The Office of Research and University Libraries are excited to host the fourth annual Research and Creative Activity at Appalachian event on Friday, October 21, 2022 from 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. in Belk Library & Infomation Commons.
This event celebrates all research, scholarship and creative endeavors of Appalachian State faculty and staff. Join us for oral presentations, posters, art pieces and performances, with an awards ceremony at 2 p.m. for the Chancellor's and Provost's Awards for Excellence in Research, Scholarship and Creative Activity.
2022 Research and Creative Activity at Appalachian Schedule of Events
The following presentations will take place Friday, October 21 in Belk Library & Information Commons.
Title: Rural Resilience & Innovation (RRI) Seed Grant Presentations
Hosted by Mark Bradbury, Ph.D., Associate Dean of College of Arts & Sciences
- Tammy Kowalczyk, Ph.D. (Accounting) and colleagues: Expanding Agricultural Entrepreneurship and Employment for Veterans Through Community Partnerships
- Cameron Lippard, Ph.D. (Sociology): Addiction and Recovery in Rural Western North Carolina: A community-based project
- Jay Rickabaugh, Ph.D. (Government & Justice Studies) and Jennifer Luetkemeyer, Ph.D. (Leadership & Educational Studies): Regional Public Sector Organizations and Their Roles in Rural Broadband Deployment
- Julie Shepherd-Powell, Ph.D. (Interdisciplinary Studies) and Savannah Murray, Ph.D. (English): Grassroots Sustainability and Resiliency in Appalachia: Protecting regional watersheds and growing local/global environmental knowledge
- Rebecca Turpin, Ph.D. (Nursing) and colleagues: Assessing Influencing Factors of Resilience and Quality of Life in Rural Registered Nurses in North Carolina
Title: Awareness of Oppression and Privilege Among BSW Students in an Appalachian Social Work Program
Presenters: Leah Hamilton, Ph.D. (Social Work), Rachel Wright, Ph.D. (Social Work) and Tynecca Lynch, Ph.D. (Social Work)
Abstract: This project explored the mission of the social work profession and its preparation for students to work with marginalized communities upon graduation. Despite the efforts put forth by the profession, the embedding of white supremacy and racism rooted in all systems, inadvertently influences the profession through academia and social work curriculums. Schools of social work are not wholly and effectively preparing graduates to challenge racism, privilege, and oppression. This study used a privilege and oppression inventory (POI) survey to measure white privilege awareness, heterosexism awareness, Christian privilege, and sexism awareness among social work students. Two groups of undergraduate social work students at a four-year, predominantly white institution (PWI) in the southeastern region of the United States were included in the survey: those in an introductory social work course and seniors in their final semester field placement. We found that senior-level social work students reflected higher levels of awareness as compared to entry-level social work students; however, the differences were not statistically significant. This may be explained by existing high levels of awareness among social worker majors or more likely, a continued inability to significantly transform social work student’s awareness of privilege and oppression in the traditional social work education paradigm. Field students also responded to open-ended questions asking them about their experiences learning about oppression and privilege in their coursework. These comments will be discussed in detail, and specific implications and recommendations for curriculum changes will be explored.
Title: Support Amid Uncertainty: Long COVID Illness Experiences and the Role of Online Communities
Presenter: David Russell, Ph.D. (Sociology)
Abstract: Long COVID is characterized by persistent and debilitating symptoms lasting longer than the two-week period experienced by most persons who recover from COVID-19. Many persons with Long COVID, who call themselves ‘long-haulers,’ gather in online communities to share their illness experiences and interactions with healthcare professionals. Drawing on qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 long-haulers recruited from five online communities, this study explores their illness experiences and interactions in online communities. Three themes were identified from our analysis, including (1) complex and unpredictable illness experienced amid an evolving understanding of the pandemic, (2) frustration, dismissal, and gaslighting in healthcare interactions, and (3) validation and support from online communities. Findings highlight variability in Long COVID experiences and how interactions in online communities aided long-haulers in navigating confusing symptoms, dismaying healthcare experiences, and significant uncertainty.
Title: Informing Our Practice: A study of faculty expectations around undergraduate research
Presenters: Breanne Crumpton (Belk Library & Information Commons) and Mark Coltrain (Belk Library & Information Commons)
Abstract: As information professionals and in our work across the University, library faculty continuously observe a gap between faculty expectations of students’ research abilities and students’ performance. This in-progress research project aims to gain insight into faculty perceptions of: what research skills undergraduate students should possess, when in their college career they should acquire and demonstrate these skills, and who is responsible for teaching these skills. This study will help bridge the gap between the understanding of student research skills by librarians and teaching faculty and inform the University Libraries’ evolving Information Literacy Instruction program. There are multiple phases for this project: 1) research and develop a literature review, which was completed in Spring 2021; 2) interviews with volunteer faculty from representative Colleges and Departments across the University, which were completed in Fall 2021; 3) a University-wide faculty survey informed by these interviews, which is planned for Fall 2022; and 4) follow-up interviews with select faculty, which is planned for Spring 2023. This presentation will offer some context for the study, the major themes that emerged from the first round of interviews, and information about the upcoming survey.
Title: Creative Nonfiction Reading: "If You See Something"
Presenter: Susan Weinberg (English)
Abstract: In the past, I have written memoir and creative nonfiction about foster parenting, guardianship of traumatized teens, and addiction. I am currently working on an extended essay (I estimate 50-60 pages when complete) titled "If You See Something," which explores from the personal perspective of a resource parent and in a non-scholarly approach why it is both so difficult to recognize child/teen trafficking when it happens in plain sight and why it is so difficult to confront it when we might think we do see it. I would most likely read from an excerpt of this essay that I just presented at the Appalachian Studies Association conference that tells about a particular instance where a group of adults did try to confront what we all suspected might be a child trafficking situation in a chain hotel.
A short segment of the opening:
If you see something, say something: our post-9/11 refrain that’s plastered over every airport, bus, building entrance, and subway system, ingrained as a nursery rhyme, to the point I rarely see it anymore. Does anyone?
But I’m not talking about spotting the switched bag or fretting that any stray backpack might be a bomb–because in those situations, there’s a clear, concrete danger to point out and obvious words to report. No one thinks you’re crazy for doing that, or says you’re up in their business–instead they tell you they’ll take care of it and thank you for your community-minded worry.
Title: Public Health Think Tank
Presenters: Jennifer Tyson (Health & Exercise Science), Maggie Sugg, Ph.D. (Geography & Planning), Manan Roy, Ph.D. (Nutrition & Healthcare Management) and Adam Hege, Ph.D. (Public Health)
Abstract: Given the current pandemic, public health is in need of immense improvement. A collective group of practitioners, researchers, and stakeholders aim to work on these innovations. What is Public Health? According to the World Health Organization, American Public Health Association, and the Center for Disease Control, public health refers to all organized measures (public or private) to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole where they live, learn, work, and play. What is a Think Tank? A body of people providing advice and ideas on specific problems. This particular think tank aims to provide public health support to all entities so they can be responsive to the needs of their communities. This group defines a think tank as “multi-disciplinary, collaborative, idea generating, and open to all interested in public health.”
Title: Supporting Health Equity (SHE) Collaborative
Presenters: Jennifer Tyson (Health & Exercise Science), Sydeena Isaacs, Ph.D. (Nutrition & Healthcare Management) and Ashley Parks, Ph.D. (Nutrition & Healthcare Management)
Abstract: In Northwestern North Carolina health equity is a significant barrier. Rate of premature death, poor or fair health, poor physical health days per month, and poor mental health days per month are all higher than the state average. This area in the Appalachians has lower rates of high school graduation and therefore college, employment rates, child poverty, and income inequality. The SHEQuITE Network aims to increase and strengthen referrals from primary care providers around social determinants of health (SDOH) by exploring why and how referrals in the healthcare setting happen in rural Appalachian communities, in the context of a global pandemic. The greater goal of this network is to provide the opportunity to further develop collective impact initiatives to reduce morbidity and mortality, improve health outcomes, and enhance overall health in Northwest North Carolina. The team will focus on planning efforts to increase and strengthen referrals from primary care providers around SDOH by exploring why and how referrals in the healthcare setting happen in rural Appalachian communities in the context of the global pandemic. This will include 1) development and content validation of a primary care engagement survey and 2) initial data collection efforts surrounding provider engagement and burnout, referral practices, self-efficacy and confidence in making referrals based on SDOH.
This presentation will discuss the objectives of the project, two grant proposals, and we will interactively connect with peers in the audience to gain feedback and insight.
Title: Story Family: Expressive arts-based research for learning about social and environmental justice
Presenter: Heather Thorp (Social Work)
Abstract: Drawing on my dissertation titled, Ongoing Curiosities in Post Formal Education: Making Kin, Becoming Kin, and Becoming Kin(d). In this year long study, participants met to explore social and environmental justice, through expressive arts, which occurred mostly outdoors. The purpose of the presentation is to tell/present about the project, but also show through the method/technique of guiding attendees in a brief experiential exercise. I will present on storytelling to learn about our storyplace or the Southern Appalachian Mountains. The result will be a greater understanding of our storyplace and how we can contribute to social and environmental knowledge through the arts.
Award Ceremony: Chancellor's and Provost's Awards for Excellence in Research, Scholarship and Creative Activity
Presented by Chancellor Sheri Everts, Provost Heather Norris, and Vice Provost for Research Ece Karatan
This year's award recipients will share presentations of their research:
Maggie Sugg, Ph.D. (Geography & Planning): Understanding the Complex Relationships Between Mental Health Risk and Environmental Factors: Implications for preventative care
David Koppenhaver, Ph.D. (Reading Education & Special Education): Capability or Disability? It Depends on Your Lens
Title: The Use of a QCPR Race Interactive Game to Improve CPR Self-Confidence and Competence
Presenters: Heather Venrick, Ph.D. (Nursing) and Lee Wittman (Nursing)
Abstract: Worldwide cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of death, resulting in approximately 17.9 million deaths (WHO, 2019). Many CPR trained students at AppState have been traditionally certified in CPR but only practice their skills at check off during the training or when needed in the clinical setting. Without yearly practice, CPR certificate holders are likely to refrain from performing CPR when the situation arises due to a lack of self-confidence (Avisar, Shiyovich, Aharonson-Daniel, & Nesher, 2013). CPR skills should be practiced in regular intervals to ensure effective CPR and confidence in the CPR provider's skill (AHA, 2021; Avisar, Shiyovich, Aharonson-Daniel, & Nesher, 2013; Sudden Cardiac Arrest Foundation, 2017). The utilization of a free Laerdal (2021) QCPR Race interactive game could provide the regular practice needed for students to improve on the chest compression component of high-quality CPR and participant self-confidence (Laerdal, 2021). For the Creative and Research Activity performance, we hope to provide an illustration of our project and provide other departments the opportunity to see the idea, ask questions, and open the doors for interprofessional collaboration. The QCPR game could be used in all departments in the Beaver College of Health Sciences as a regular practice to ensure all of our students and faculty can provide high-quality CPR in the future. With increased confidence and more high-qualified trained staff and students, the better outcomes we may have in the future and we may be able to reduce the number of cardiovascular deaths.
Title: FY22 CONCERT Showcase
Hosted by Christine Hendren, Ph.D., Director of RIEEE and Professor in Geological & Environmental Sciences
- Kevin Gamble (Sustainable Technology & the Built Environment): Effective Community Composting
- Tammy Kowalczyk, Ph.D. (Director of the Appalachian Impact Clinic and Professor in Accounting): Comparing policy options for increasing participation and investment in forest carbon in Southern Appalachia
Abstract: This session includes short presentations from two FY2022 CONCERT grant recipients, highlighting collaborative research on sustainability-related topics, preceded by a brief overview of RIEEE and the CONCERT grant program.
4th Floor Rotunda
Title: Tiny Triassic Microvertebrate Fossils from Across Pangea: A Fulbright Flex Award-funded research experience
Presenter: Andrew Heckert, Ph.D. (Geological & Environmental Sciences)
Abstract: The Triassic period marks a critical interval in earth history, sandwiched between the enormous end-Permian extinction event (~251 Ma) and the lesser end-Triassic extinction event 201 Ma. During this time terrestrial tetrapod assemblages began a transition from older faunas dominated by evolutionary holdovers from the Permian to archosaur-dominated assemblages that would characterize the rest of the Mesozoic. Triassic rocks record very early or first appearances of the modern amphibian lineages (e.g., frogs and salamander), advanced synapsids (including mammalian ancestors), and many diapsids, including lizards, turtles, pterosaurs, and dinosaurs. The oldest records of taxa critical to documenting this transition from “Paleozoic” animals to the lineages that dominate today's landscape come from rocks of Triassic age. Many of these taxa evolved at small body size, equivalent to that of modern lizards (~0.1-1.5 m long), and thus their primary fossil record is comprised of bones and teeth less than 1 cm long, fossils known as “microvertebrates."
Fossil vertebrates are unevenly distributed in the rock record, so our understanding of the evolution of Triassic tetrapods has both spatial and temporal gaps. Most Triassic microvertebrate fossils are younger (Late Triassic) and Laurasian (from Europe or North America),even though all Triassic continents were connected as the supercontinent Pangea. There are few Triassic microvertebrate-bearing localities from Gondwana (southern continents and India) even though Gondwana localities have yielded many fossils of larger vertebrates. An Early Triassic site in South Africa thus provides a window into the dynamics of the Triassic tetrapod transition.
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Title: Chemical and Rheological Characterization of Bio-Oil Modified Asphalt Binder
Presenter: Sharareh Shirzad, Ph.D. (Sustainable Technology & the Built Environment)
Abstract: Crude oil-based asphalt binders are produced from non-renewable resources which are facing rapid depletion. Bio-binders can be used as an asphalt modifier, asphalt extender, or a bio-asphalt with complete replacement of the petroleum-based binder. The application of bio-oils as a partial or complete replacement of the asphalt binder can improve the performance of the asphalt pavement while reducing its cost. Furthermore, a huge amount of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) are produced each year, which must be landfilled. Bio-oils may be used to recover original properties of aged binders, thus allowing for higher percentages of RAP and RAS.
This research proposed the use of waste wood-based bio-oil as a partial replacement of asphalt binder in the construction of the new pavement. The waste wood bio-oil was donated by a local biochar facility, in Mills River, NC. The bio-oil is a byproduct of their biochar production process and since they had no application for the bio-oil, it was stored on the facility site. The chemical composition of the waste wood bio-oil was studied using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) test. Next, four different binder blends were prepared using asphalt grade most used in the state of North Carolina and four percentages of bio-oil. Prepared blends were characterized using laboratory test, Rotational Viscometer (RV). In addition, chemical tests such as FT-IR was used to evaluate the effect of aging on the chemical structure of the binder blends.
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Title: A Community Based Participatory Research Approach for Recruiting and Retaining Underrepresented Students in Communication Science & Disorders
Presenters: Jennifer Dalton, Ph.D. (Communication Sciences & Disorders) and Joseph Klein, Ph.D. (Communication Sciences & Disorders)
Abstract: According to the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 8.3% of ASHA members identify as racial minorities and 5.8% identify as Hispanic or Latinx. Increasing practitioner diversity has been a goal for many years, but little has changed. THe purpose of this study is to describe the lived experiences of historically underrepresented CSD students and their views on how to recruit and retain students like themselves.
This study is a phenomenological interview of 10 speech-language pathology students and clinicians who identify as racial or ethnic minorities. This presentation will detail participants' lived experiences as undergraduate and graduate students and what they believe are the important changes that Communication Sciences & Disorders (CSD) programs could make to recruit and retain more historically underrepresented students.
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Title: Including Internalization in a Secondary Science Methods Course for Preservice High School Teachers
Presenter: Khadija Fouad, Ph.D. (Biology)
Abstract: This qualitative study examines whether incorporating some aspects of internationalization into a secondary science methods course impacts preservice teachers’ perceived efficacy in using internationalization in their future science teaching. The study examines tensions involved in incorporating internationalization into the methods course given the limitations of time and the already challenging workload for preservice teachers. Aspects of inter-cultural understanding and empathy are incorporated into a unit on diversity, equity, and inclusion pre-service teachers will use to adapt lesson plans for learners with special needs. In a subsequent lesson preservice teachers explore internationalization resources and then design a draft unit plan including a global component. The Globally Competent Learning Continuum is used to measure preservice teachers' perceived efficacy in using internationalization in their future science teaching as both a pre- and post-test This is supplemented with explanatory statements from the participants in an attempt to overcome one limitation of the instrument, which is that people may rate themselves lower the more they learn because learning more helps them to realize how much they still don't know.
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Title: A Point-of-Decision Prompt to Encourage Physical Distancing on Multi-Use Trails During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Presenter: Adam Hege, Ph.D. (Public Health)
Abstract: Adherence to recommended messaging for physical distancing in public outdoor spaces during the COVID-19 pandemic and strategies to promote physical distancing are currently unknown. This study examined the effectiveness of a point-of-decision prompt to increase physical distancing (maintaining at least six feet of distance) on multi-use trails. Passive infrared cameras were installed on two trails for one week in June 2020 prior to installing a pavement marking illustrating what six feet of distance looks like and one week after in July 2020. Coders were trained on a systematic procedure and viewed videos for interactions between independent groups of trail users. Interactions were coded for trail width, group passing direction, size of groups, and whether independent groups maintained physical distance (dependent variable). Frequencies and valid percentages were used to describe trail characteristics and user behaviors and logistic regression was used to determine the factors significantly associated with maintaining physical distance during an interaction. Analyses indicate that the intervention did not have a significant effect on interacting groups maintaining physical distance when passing, despite increasing from baseline (72%) to post-intervention (79%). The likelihood of maintaining physical distance at baseline and post-intervention was higher when: passing in the opposite direction compared to passing in the same direction, using 12-foot-wide trails compared to 10-foot-wide trails, and only one person was in each group. Trail width should be considered when constructing or renovating trails to promote physical distancing. Further research is needed on effective messaging strategies to promote physical distancing on trails for future pandemics.
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Title: Impact of an mHealth Intervention Among Rural, Low-Income Spanish and English Speaking Participants
Presenter: Jamie Griffin, Ph.D. (Nutrition & Healthcare Management)
Abstract: Rural dwelling, low-income individuals see increased risk of chronic disease due to limited access to healthcare. Hispanic/Latino adults are affected disproportionately by these barriers. High Country Community Health (HCCH) and Appalachian State University (ASU) developed a bilingual (English and Spanish), 24-week, mHealth-based program called My Quest in the High Country (MQHC) to support these individuals.
Title: RIEEE + Center-Led Research Activities
- Christine Hendren, Ph.D. (Director of RIEEE and Professor in Geological & Environmental Sciences): Science and Technologies for Phosphorus Sustainability (STEPS) Threads at Appalachian - TBL thinking, convergence research and multidisciplinary student research experiences
- Ash Morgan, Ph.D. (Director of CERPA and Professor in Economics): Measuring the Economic Impact of New Office Space in Boone, NC
- Jamie Russell, Ph.D. (Director of AEC and Professor in Sustainable Technology & the Built Environment): Solar + Storage Pilot for Low to Moderate Income Households in the High Country
Abstract: This session highlights several research activities led by RIEEE and two of its three affiliated centers, CERPA and AEC, preceded by a brief overview of our units and how we support and enhance research and creative activities at Appalachian State University.
4th Floor Rotunda
Digital Art Piece
Title: Viewing Community and Resilience through Student Eyes
Presenter: Ashley Carpenter, Ph.D. (Leadership & Educational Studies)
Abstract: 20 Upward Bound students will engage in the concepts of community resilience through the arts-based methodology, Photovoice. Upward Bound program is one of the federal TRIO programs, which are outreach and student services programs designed to identify and provide services for individuals from disenfranchised backgrounds. The purpose of the project is for students to be in conversation about what community, resilience, and sustainability mean to them through their eyes and the photographic images presented. The methodology, Photovoice, is a self-advocacy tool that blends a grassroots approach to photography and social action. It is a process by which students can represent, identify or enhance their community through the art of photography. This process allows students to tell their own stories and enables them to act as potential catalysts for social change within their communities. Through students’ photos, students answer the following questions: “How can public higher education increase resilience in our WNC communities? How can Upward Bound students embed resilient community practices within their environments (i.e., schools, neighborhoods, virtual spaces)?” The students will be taking photos over the summer, informing the project’s findings. Additionally, as this is a student-centered project, students will have the opportunity to organize and facilitate the presentation. This study can be used to inform policies, practices, and programs with best practices to support the success of first-generation, low-income, rural students.
4th Floor Rotunda
Title: Ultrasound Study of Articulation Patterns in Speech
Presenter: Stefan Frisch, Ph.D. (Communication Sciences & Disorders), Anna Garvey (Communication Sciences & Disorders) and Carrie Hutchinson (Communication Sciences & Disorders)
Abstract: Research on speech articulation in the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders uses ultrasound imaging of the tongue to provide direct evidence of speech gestures. This technique is used both to examine typical aspects of speech production as well as with individuals with communication disorders. This presentation will provide a snapshot of ongoing research by students examining both aspects of speech.
In typical speech production, speakers usually use the same articulatory gesture for a particular speech sound in a particular context. However, since people are not machines, there is inherent variation in how precisely a speech gesture is repeated. In an extension of the PI's previous research, students in the lab are evaluating how much variation is typical for different age groups and whether the complexity of speech materials influences variability. The presentation will provide samples of ultrasound images of speech and the method of quantifying variation from one articulation to another.
When considering disordered speech, since much of what happens in speech articulation is not visible, ultrasound imaging can provide insight into a client's articulation. Examples will be shared from a student working with a child with Down's syndrome who has a limited vocabulary and frequently produces unintelligible speech. An examination of the child's speech in different contexts has found a variety of auditory and visual feedback cues that have improved the child's intelligibility. The presentation will share selected examples.
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Title: Assessing Biometrics, Nutritional Behaviors and Sleep Behaviors Following Implementation of mHealth in College Students
Presenter: Jamie Griffin, Ph.D. (Nutrition & Healthcare Management)
Abstract: Chronic diseases such as obesity are common in college students. College students struggle to develop strategies to maintain healthy weight and lifestyle behaviors. mHealth programs are accessible to college students’ schedules. My Quest in the High Country collaborated with Appalachian State University (ASU) Student Health Services and the Blue Cross Institute for Health and Human Services Interprofessional Clinic to create a 24-week mHealth intervention to improve weight status, health behaviors and biometrics in ASU students. Recruitment of ASU students occurred through flyers, social media, and email. During pre-assessment, participant eligibility, informed consent, biometrics and health behaviors were collected. From weeks 1-12, participants received text messages (n=2/day), eNewsletters (n=1/wk), and physical activity feedback. At midpoint, Fitbits were returned and biometrics were taken. From weeks 13-24, text messages and eNewsletters continued. At post-assessment, biometrics and post-assessment surveys were collected. Statistical analyses included Wilcoxon Signed Rank, McNemar, paired t-test, and descriptives. Significance was set at p< .05. Participants (n=11) were female (72.7%), non-Hispanic (82%), and Caucasian (64%), with a mean age of 23.4. Significant (p< .05) improvements were observed in body weight, BMI, diastolic blood pressure, fruit and vegetable intake, and sedentary time. No significant changes occurred in systolic blood pressure, step count, physical activity minutes, or sleep score. mHealth interventions in college students may positively impact health and behavior change. Progress dropped after returning the Fitbit at week 12. In future studies, a larger student email list may increase sample size and participant diversity. Wearing the Fitbit for 24 weeks is preferable.
4th Floor Rotunda
Title: Appalachian State Students Count Carbon
Presenter: Gregg Marland, Ph.D. (Geological & Environmental Sciences)
Abstract: There is great global concern about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the climate changes that are expected as a result. It is generally agreed that GHG emissions, most notably of carbon dioxide, need to be reduced. To understand the sources of emissions, focus mitigation efforts, and monitor agreements we need detailed understanding and clear and accurate accounting. Research efforts at Appalachian State have made huge contributions to global accounting of carbon dioxide emissions. Effort here has focused on both the methods and results of accounting. Simple presentation of a list of published reports and a few of the contained figures can share with the Appalachian community an understanding of the magnitude of the contribution of Appalachian State students. Emphasis will be on the role of students, but student efforts have been supported by at least 12 faculty from a least 7 academic departments. In the last 8 years there have been at least 20 such papers published, involving at least 20 student authors, with at least 7 of these papers having Appalachian State students as first author.